Sunday, May 24, 2020

The Benefits Of Using Grades On Student Learning And...

Quinn Casey Giese 4th hour November 19. 2014 Grades â€Å"If I can’t give a child a better reason for studying than a grade on a report card, I ought to lock my desk and go home and stay there.† -Dorothy De Zouche, Missouri teacher, 1945. The practice of using grades to measure academic achievement has been used by educators for years, but there is still no consensus about the effectiveness or benefits of using grades on student learning and achievement. Do grades help students to learn or hinder them? Even though grades have been accepted a standard practice in most schools, there is little research to support their continued use. Grades can cause students to lose interest in learning, preference for challenge, and quality thinking.†¦show more content†¦In American schools place a high value on students GPA. This creates increased competition among students to graduate at the top of their class, get accepted to prestigious colleges, and set the standard for how they will live the rest of their lives. That’s an unbelievable amount of pressure. GPA is determined by taking the average of the grades that students receive in each of their classes, some occasionally having more â€Å"weight† tha n others (such as AP or accelerated courses). For now the system works fine, but it could be improved. In 2012 the PISA, Program for International Student Assessment, test was administered to students between the ages of 15 years and 2 months to 16 years and 2 months. 65 countries participated in the test, representing over 80% of the total world’s economy (â€Å"PISA 2012 Results†). America’s results were much worse than expected, showing that the U.S. scored below average in mathematics, and almost average in reading and science. America’s final rank was 27th overall (â€Å"PISA 2012 Results†). American schools are still doing better than half of the world, but barely. Only 3 countries stand between the United States and the middle, and we aren’t even close to the top ten. One of the highest scoring countries on the PISA test was Finland, which ranked 12th overall and performed nearly perfect in all 3 subjects

Wednesday, May 13, 2020

Effective Leadership Management Values Essay - 783 Words

Effective Leadership: Management Values in the Latin American Cluster â€Å"A strategy is something like, an innovative new product; globalization, taking your products around the world; be the low-cost producer. A strategy is something you can touch; you can motivate people with; be number one and number two in every business. You can energize people around the message .† Jack Welch In order for a multinational enterprise (MNE) to be successful in infiltrating Brazil’s market, it’s important for leaders to become familiar with the cultural norms before conducting business. There are leadership and cultural information available to assist American leaders in their globalization strategies. The GLOBE leadership study and Greet Hofstede, have researched the cultural dimensions that are relative to the unique management style and/or techniques of leaders within Brazil’s business culture. Although, there are several dimensions this paper will concentrate on the basics of doing business in Brazil. GLOBE Leadership Framework: The GLOBE leadership study has identified Brazil as part of the Latin American culture (Hoppe, 2016). According to the GLOBE leadership study, Brazil is within a cultural cluster that values the following categories: team oriented, performance oriented and group protective. These leadership scales identify a specific managerial style that are preferred in the Latin American cluster. Leaders within this culture are expected to inspire and promoteShow MoreRelatedIlm M3.18943 Words   |  4 PagesILM LEVEL 3 DIPLOMA IN LEADERSHIP AND MANAGEMENT ILM/L3DipLM/0308 Introducing the qualification The ILM Level 3 Diploma in Leadership and Management has been specially designed for first line managers looking to develop a wide range of management and leadership skills suitable for their role. 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I will also be discussing the circumstances in which management as well as leadership would be crucial. Leadership can be described as a process of social influence in which one person can enlistRead MoreKey Characteristics Of Transformational Leadership1116 Words   |  5 PagesFurther characteristics of transformational leadership include concern for others, relationship building, communication, innovation, and other positive rapport building, leadership characteristics and values. Relationship building, communication strategies, and innovation have significant meaning for SAHC leadership who has the responsibility to form partnerships and coalitions to advance goals with workers. A leadership style that complements the values and principles of the individual leader andRead MoreMy Position And Responsibilities Of The Long Term Care Community1384 Words   |  6 Pagesresponsibilities in the long-term care community are the motivational factor behind my enrollment back into school. As I reflect throughout the course, I realize that I had the ability and potential to excel in a leader ship role. In module 3, we participated in the MindTools leadership assessment where I scored a 74 of 90. I scored strong on self-confidence and motivating people to deliver the vision. The areas that I needed to work on are: being a good role model, managing performance effectivelyRead MoreLeadership And Management Of Restorative Justice1193 Words   |  5 PagesLeadership and Management of Restorative Justice To address the increasing recidivism rate among offenders in the juvenile and adult criminal justice system, comprehensive restorative justice programs should expand to a much wider faction of the United States criminal justice system. Programs should be implemented on federal, state, and local levels to effectively and efficiently achieve this goal. The goals that should be strived for must be kept in mind so that adequate progress can be made andRead MoreMy Personal Philosophy Of Innovation1370 Words   |  6 Pagesmaximize positive changes†(Porter_ O’Grady Malloch,2016.p.4). It is important for a leader to understand her own philosophy of innovation and leadership to be effective in the workplace. In this course, I learned how to develop my philosophy of innovation and leadership, and how to create my own personal mission based on my ethics and core values to be effective DNP leader in the future. Personal philosophy of innovation â€Å"Innovation is definitely not self-starting or self-perpetuating. People make

Wednesday, May 6, 2020

Oopp Lab Work Free Essays

Create a class account that maintains AC_no, name, and balance. Perform deposit, withdrawal and statement print operations. (statement print must print all the transactions that has taken place so for – use structures inside the class to maintain the details about Create a class that holds the details of the mobile phone like brand, mime, no of Simi cards, hone numbers etc. We will write a custom essay sample on Oopp Lab Work or any similar topic only for you Order Now . Allow user to login with their mobile no. Use a function that sends a message from that mobile. Maintain the details of the message as a static member inside the send message function and display each time all the messages sent from that mobile, (b) 4. Create a class ID_card that maintains the details In an ID card. Perform insert, update, delete and display operation through functions that takes input through reference parameter. (c) Create a C++ program that takes employee details like ID, first name, last name, age and address. Create a class for student {name, course, regular/part-time, address}. Use friend function to check that a student with same name and address can’t be a regular student as well as an employee. (c) 6. Synthesize a C++ program that has two classes (one for employee and one for student), have a separate class for address (with door no. Street name, city, state) and reuse address both for employee and student. Perform insert, delete and display operations by taking choice of person (employee or student) from the user. Allow user to have more than one address also. Create an class that stores details about the computer (Assembled/branded, RAM, HAD, processor speed, price etc. ,). Use constructors to initialize the object and a destructor that deducts the count of object each time the object is passed to destroy function. Also use copy constructor to create a system with the configuration same as that’s of an existing system. (b) 8. Create a savings_account class that maintains the details of customers like name, phone number. Cancan. Balance. Ensure that the variables are protected with proper specifies such that only the user’s personal details can be modified directly. Perform deposit, withdrawal, statement print, and pin change operations by checking for minimum balance and other conditions. Create a new account for the same user by copying the basic details of the user using a copy constructor. (c) † 9. Create a class which maintains information like surname, password, age, mailed, phone number, accepted friends list, etc†¦ Declare a friend function Inside the class. Create 3 users such that the first user is friend with 2 and 3 (update friend list of user 1 with user names of 2 and 3). If the users logs in, he should see the personal Information How to cite Oopp Lab Work, Papers

Tuesday, May 5, 2020

Organizational Change for Case Study of Motors-myassignmenthelp

Question: Discuss about theOrganizational Change for Case Study of General Motors. Answer: Introduction: This report deals with organizational change in terms of a real life case study along with analyzing the various aspects of organizational behavior in the given journal article. The main objective of the article was to highlight the impact of organizational change on the organizational behavior of an organization. These changes involve changes in the attitudes of the organizational employees in terms of resistance to changes and change management approaches. The article explains how changes took place in General Motors and the strategies involved to keep the organizational employees motivated. Organizational behavior and change: According to Khan Hashim (2014), the rapid changes in the business environment have made it mandatory for the organizations to keep themselves updated and bring the necessary changes within the organization in order to remain ahead of the competitors. The changes in the technologies especially in the automobile industry have compelled the automobile companies to bring necessary changes within the organizations. Change management is necessary for attaining sustainability in the long- run. Organizational change might include changes in the organizational culture, employees, technology, rules and regulations, human resource management, etc. It is necessary to manage these changes in an effective manner such that the changes turn out to be beneficial for the organization. On the contrary, Cameron (2015) stated that organizational changes are very difficult to implement as they face several types of resistances. It is necessary to study the organizational behavior before initiating any change. Organizational behavior is the study of the interaction between the human behavior and the organization. The major type of resistance is in the form of employee resistance. The employees of an organization are usually never in favor of changes. The changes brought within an organization directly affect the employees of an organization. For instance, change in the form of a new technology might make the employees fear that the technology might replace them and the organization might no longer want them. Therefore, implementing change within an organization might create disturbances within an organization. On the other hand, according to Anderson (2016), the management of an organization must motivate the employees to favor the changes in order to implement the changes within the organization without creating any disturbances. It is necessary to change the attitudes of the employees and make them understand the benefits they would derive from the implementation of the changes. Resistance to changes and overcoming them: According to Pinder (2014), employees resist changes as a result of several factors such as habit, security, fear and economical factors. Resistance is the reaction obtained from the organizational members when a change is proposed. Therefore, he suggested that an organization must implement a change fairly. It is necessary to choose the organizational employees, who would welcome the change and those who would resist the change. It is the responsibility of the management of an organization to properly communicate with the employees and explain them the benefits of the change. It is necessary to ensure participation of all the organizational members in order to implement a change within an organization. It is also necessary to involve the organizational members in the decision-making process in order to keep them motivated. On the contrary, Miner (2015) mentioned that following the Lewins three step change model is necessary to ensure the success of a change implementation. It is necessary to prepare the employees before the implementation of a change in order to ensure that they feel comfortable both before and after the implementation of the change. This process involves unfreezing, implementing the change and refreezing. On the other hand, Greenberg (2013) stated that it is necessary to study the perceptions and attitudes of the organizational members to know their attitude towards the change. There are always possibilities that individuals might have perception errors. Perception is a series of psychological steps that enable a person to interpret a information or situation. Change management at General Motors: General Motors is an American automobile manufacturing company which was found in the year 1908. The company runs its business in six continents covering more than 396 locations. The company was once the largest automobile manufacturing company in the world but after the emergence of Toyota, the company fell into back foot. According to DuBrin (2013), there were several internal factors that required a drastic change in order to remain ahead of the competitors. On such issue was the high wages paid to the employees at General Motors as compared to Toyota, which ultimately increased the expenses of the organization. The company was compelled to carry out its activities with more than 80% capacity even when it was not required. All these internal factors led to the downfall of the organization. On the contrary, Wagner III Hollenbeck (2014) mentioned that the major change required within the organization was cost- cutting. However, this change is never accepted by the employees of an organization as it would involve lowering their wages or salaries. Despite the resistances, the organization cut the pay of the organizational employees, which led to dissatisfaction and demotivation among the employees. Another massive change required was the cultural change. The organization brought several changes in the structure of the organization and in the management team. This change was initiated to improve the speed of decision- making process. On the other hand, according to Luthans, Luthans Luthans (2015), several issues aroused due to the changes in the wages and the organizational culture. The top- down approach followed by the organization did not consider the involvement of the employees in the decision- making processes. This made the employees feel dissatisfaction and ultimately led to job dissatisfaction. The cost- cutting strategy and the top- down view approach of the management had several negative impacts on the organization. The lowered wages and the cut in the number of employees created dissatisfaction among the employees. The employees became conscious of their job security and lower wages. The emergence of other automobile companies such as Toyota became a huge threat for the organization as Toyota had maintained a strong organizational culture and had been successful in keeping the employees satisfied. This became a tough challenge for General Motors and the company started suffering huge losses. Maslow needs hierarchy theory: This theory of motivation states that there are five basic needs of a man. The first need is the physiological needs. This involves necessities such as food, water and shelter. The next level comprises of safety need, which involves financial security and health security. The next level involves feeling of belongingness, wherein a person develops a feeling of being loved. After the satisfaction of all the lower needs, arises the need of esteem. In this stage, a person develops needs of being respected by others. The last stage comprises of self- actualization needs wherein the need of achieving everything a person can possibly achieve rises (Benn, Dunphy Griffiths, 2014). Conclusion: General Motors faced severe competition from Toyota and suffered huge losses in the past. However, the company was able to improve its position by studying and implementing organizational behavior theories. The company has been able to improve its working conditions and has also been able to keep its employees satisfied. Change management is necessary for attaining sustainability in the long- run. It is necessary to manage these changes in an effective manner such that the changes turn out to be beneficial for the organization. However, the company is required to study the perceptions and attitudes of the organizational members while initiating any change within the organization. Motivated employees are an asset to an organization and help in enhancing the productivity of an organization. Therefore, it is necessary to keep the organizational members well- informed about the organizational changes and keep them motivated so that the changes are implemented successfully. References: Anderson, D. L. (2016).Organization development: The process of leading organizational change. Sage Publications. Benn, S., Dunphy, D., Griffiths, A. (2014).Organizational change for corporate sustainability. Routledge. Cameron, E., Green, M. (2015).Making sense of change management: A complete guide to the models, tools and techniques of organizational change. Kogan Page Publishers. DuBrin, A. J. (2013).Fundamentals of organizational behavior: An applied perspective. Elsevier. Greenberg, J. (Ed.). (2013).Organizational behavior: The state of the science. Routledge. Khan, M. A., Hashim, M. (2014). Organizational Change: Case Study of General Motors. Luthans, F., Luthans, B. C., Luthans, K. W. (2015).Organizational behavior: An evidence-based approach. IAP. Miner, J. B. (2015).Organizational behavior 1: Essential theories of motivation and leadership. Routledge. Pinder, C. C. (2014).Work motivation in organizational behavior. Psychology Press. Wagner III, J. A., Hollenbeck, J. R. (2014).Organizational behavior: Securing competitive advantage. Routledge.

Wednesday, April 1, 2020

Impact of CT Scans on Stroke Diagnosis

Introduction Strokes are one of the leading causes of death in many parts of the world. Consequently, it is essential to adopt procedures that lead to the accurate diagnosis of the condition. The CT scan is a primary mode of investigation of the disease. This report will determine its impact on the management of the condition within clinical and emergency settings.Advertising We will write a custom research paper sample on Impact of CT Scans on Stroke Diagnosis specifically for you for only $16.05 $11/page Learn More Impact of CT scans on stroke diagnosis A stroke is a condition in which one looses brain functions at a rapid rate owing to disruptions in blood supply in the cerebral region. The syndrome may result in physical symptoms, such as, the inability to control limbs on one side, uncoordinated speech, visual defects on one side of the body, pain, seizures, emotional inability, coma, loss of speech, muscle numbness, pneumonia, anxiety, or even deat h. The latter effect may occur if the stroke persists for more than one day. All physical manifestations correspond to the part of the brain that the stroke affected. It should be noted that, during a stroke, clinicians can look out for symptoms, such as stiffness of the neck, convulsions and headaches, to diagnose the condition. Since the effects of a stroke are dependent on the swiftness and response given, then it is essential to use a method of diagnosis that can be done quickly. Therapeutic interventions depend on the stroke that clinicians identify. For instance, it may be thrombolytic, so this necessitates the use of anti- platelet therapy. Alternatively, it could be hemorrhagic, so this should lead to the use of agents like Nimodipine. Early detection of the pathology of the stroke is essential in the therapeutic decision. The Computerized Tomography (CT) scan has assisted in the early identification of these pathologies, and thus facilitated timely treatment responses. If p atients lack access to CT scanning technologies or other clinical detection methods, then they may get wrong treatment, which could lead to health deterioration. The management of stroke patients has tremendously improved owing to the use of CT scans. Computerized Tomography scans assist in differentiating between the two key types of stroke; Ischemic or hemorrhagic. Hemorrhagic strokes emanate from burst blood vessels in the cerebral region while Ischemic strokes stem from the absence of blood flow in the same region.Advertising Looking for research paper on health medicine? Let's see if we can help you! Get your first paper with 15% OFF Learn More Additionally, the scan can assist in location of which part of the brain the problem affects. It is also necessary to determine the severity of a stroke, and the CT scan also assists in this course of action. If the condition has ever occurred in the past, one needs to know the risk of future transient Ischemic attacks (a condition that mirrors symptoms of a stroke but reverses within 24 hours); CT scans assist in that process, as well. Treatment methods for strokes are evidence-based. Therefore, clinicians ought to strive to make diagnoses that are as accurate as possible. Most modern methods used in detection lack the sensitivity and specificity of the CT scan. The CT scan aids in excluding or confirming the existence of a cerebral hemorrhage at an early stage. Consequently, clinicians can begin anti- platelet therapy on such patients if they find no hemorrhage. Alternatively, blood pressure may be controlled, depending on the stroke subtype, if a clinician uses a CT scan. If medical facilities lack these technologies, then they might give patients anticoagulants when they have intracerebral hemorrhage, which is a serious mistake (Fiebach et al 530). Anticoagulants work by increasing the flow of blood, so they are inappropriate for a patient who already has a hemorrhaging problem. There are conditi ons in which the CT scan is more useful than MRI scans or other detection methods. For instance, when a patient has a severe stroke and an immediate decision is imperative, then the easily-administered CT scan is superior to other methods. It can easily differentiate between the two key types of strokes mentioned earlier. In fact, the short length of time required for the administration of CT scans explains why it is a superior method for patients with severe strokes. Before clinicians can administer thrombolysis drugs, they need to make a time-limited analysis, and the CT scan is quite useful for this purpose. Patients with low consciousness levels particularly rely on CT scans because this can contribute to the successful administration of treatment. When treatment is necessary, certain physiological conditions are more effectively noted using CT scans than other methods. If the internal carotid artery possesses surgical stenosis, then a CT scan can be quite appropriate. Experts u se the method for its specificity and sensitivity in this area. It provides an accurate visualization of plaque ulcerations or other defects on the arterial wall. Therefore, the method is critical in illustrating how the interior section of an arterial wall looks like. The best application of a CT scan is in the detection of cerebral hemorrhage. The method has specificity of 89% and a sensitivity of 100%. Conversely, the MRI scan has a sensitivity of 81% and specificity of 100% (Nogueira et al. 870). As a consequence, the CT scan is more effective for hemorrhagic strokes.Advertising We will write a custom research paper sample on Impact of CT Scans on Stroke Diagnosis specifically for you for only $16.05 $11/page Learn More This advantage stems from the superior visualization of blood vessels. Therefore, if one has ruptured a blood vessel or an arteriovenous malformation exists, then the CT scan will reveal it quite clearly. This category of strokes can be quite detrimental if left untreated. The presence of excess blood in the brain often leads to pressure build up, and brain damage, so it ought to be corrected as soon as it arises. A CT scan is also desirable in instances where patient movement may be difficult to control. The equipment will still read through movement, and thus give useful images. Furthermore, the technology can be used even when a patient contains an implanted medical device. Other scanning technologies like MRIs are too sensitive to patient movement and will react to the presence of medical devices in the bodies of stroke patients. Case studies Scholars have carried out a number of case studies on the effect of CT scans on clinical outcomes, and most of them have demonstrated positive results. Goyal et al. (95) carried out one such study. The team wanted to find out whether CT scan appearance led to the improvement of time taken to recanalize patients in acute Ischemic strokes as well as in endovascular throm bectomy. A patient with an Ischemic stroke undergoes treatment by recanalization of an occluded artery. Recanalization refers to the creation of new paths through a blockage in an artery. An institution may decide to use intravenous IV administration for treatment of acute Ischemic strokes. However, the latter path often leads to poor recanalization rates. Conversely, one may use endovascular methods, which lead to high recanalization rates but low clinical outcomes. In order to determine the right treatment method, many institutions rely on baseline CT scans. The authors of the above case study went ahead and studied the effect of a favorable CT scan on the time it takes to recanalize. They found that if a CT scan score were less than or equal to 4, then a patient would not get positive outcomes from recanalization. However, if the patient had a CT scan score of greater than 7, then they had better chances of benefiting from the recanalization. Additionally, if the CT scan illustra ted that a patient had severe damage and a score of greater than 4, then they benefited from fast recanalization. The above study, therefore, shows that CT scans play a crucial role in boosting clinical outcomes for patients undergoing treatment. Hill et al. (1612) also carried out research on how CT scans can enhance clinical effectiveness in the treatment of stroke. They focused on intravenous (IV) therapy as well as intra- arterial (IA) therapy for treatment of ischemic strokes. The authors explained that hospitals and patients spend a lot of resources on the administration of IV-IA therapy.Advertising Looking for research paper on health medicine? Let's see if we can help you! Get your first paper with 15% OFF Learn More Therefore, it is always crucial to select the right patients first before taking them through this intensive procedure. Neuro- imaging, through CT scans, is an effective way of ensuring that clinicians select the right patients for treatment. In the analysis, they looked into the CT scores of 460 ischemic stroke patients. The authors compared the clinical outcomes of patients with unfavorable baseline CT scan readings to the ones with unfavorable and neutral scores. They found that those individuals whose CT appearance was favorable, had a higher success rate during the treatment of the stroke (through IV-IA therapy) than those without an unfavorable outcome. Consequently, this research also proves that medical imaging using CT scans can aid in the selection of the right patients for treatment of the disease. Limitations of the CT scan CT scans have their limitations, as well; clinicians cannot diagnose Ischemic strokes unless these have occurred 6 hours before, which undermines the application of the method. The presence of blood clots or lesions principally cause Ischemic strokes. CT scans are not effective in visualizing these lesions, especially because the lesions could be secondary or acute. Nonetheless, if early signs of ischemia already exist and more accurate methods of detection are unavailable, then clinicians may opt for the use of a CT scan. Statistics indicate that MRI scans have a sensitivity of 83% and specificity of 98% when assessing ischemic strokes. Conversely, CT scans only have a sensitivity of 16% and specificity of 96% when used for this same purpose. CT scans cannot assist in understanding the symptoms behind complicated strokes. If a clinician is uncertain about the location of the stroke, then a CT scan cannot shed more light on it. In this circumstance, it would be more effective to rely on an MRI scan. The latter method provides more details of brain tissue than CTs. Conclusion CT scans support the treatment of patients with stroke s by facilitating fast detection of the nature of the stroke. They are particularly useful when the concerned individual has a hemorrhagic stroke. The technology also assists in selecting the right patients for treatment of ischemic stroke thus leading to more successful outcomes. Nonetheless, this form of medical imaging has its limits as it has low sensitivity when analyzing complex strokes or diagnosing ischemic strokes. Therefore, CT scans should be used to complement other imaging technologies and in the above-mentioned cases alone. Works Cited Fiebach, J, P Schellinger A Gass. â€Å"Stroke Magnetic Resonance Imaging is Accurate in Hyper Acute Intracerebral Hemorrhage: A Multicenter Study in the Validity of Stroke Imaging†. Stroke 35.2(2004): 502-506. Print. Goyal, Mayank, Bijoy Menon, Shelagh Coutts, Michael Hill Andrew Demchuk. â€Å"Effect of Baseline CT Scan Appearance and Time to Recanalization on Clinical Outcomes in Endovascular Thrombectomy of Acute Ischemic S trokes†. Stroke 42(2011): 93-97. Print. Hill, Micheal, Andrew Demchuk, T Tomsick, Y Palesch J Broderick. â€Å"Using the Baseline CT Scan to Select Acute Stroke Patoents for IV-IA Therapy.† American Journal of Neuroradiology 27(2006): 1612-1616. Print. Nogueira, R, A Yoo, F Buonanno, J Hirsch. â€Å"Endovascular Approaches to Acute Stroke: A Comprehensive Review of Studies and Trials†. American Journal of Neuroradiology 30(2009): 859-875. Print. This research paper on Impact of CT Scans on Stroke Diagnosis was written and submitted by user Rachael S. to help you with your own studies. You are free to use it for research and reference purposes in order to write your own paper; however, you must cite it accordingly. You can donate your paper here.

Sunday, March 8, 2020

Compare and Contrast the Tudor and Stuart Dynasties essays

Compare and Contrast the Tudor and Stuart Dynasties essays Throughout history, dynasties, or a series of rulers who belong to the same family, have come and gone. No two are exactly alike. They all have similarities and differences when compared to each other. The Stuart and Tudor dynasties are no exception to the rule. Each had different views on how to rule. An example of a ruling style would be divine right. When a king or queen is said to rule by divine right, it means they believe god chose them to rule. While Elizabeth, the last and the greatest Tudor monarch, ruled somewhat by divine right, she did not rule by divine right to the extent of James I of the Stuart dynasty who felt that it was beneath his dignity to bargain with parliament over money. Instead, Elizabeth used her intelligence to get her way or for her countries financial benefit. For example, she used the hopes of a marriage to Phillip II of Spain to win diplomatic advantages with many European countries. Ruling by divine right was common of the Stuart dynasty but only Elizabeth of the Tudor family ruled in that manner. Henry VII tried desperately to have a son. He wanted to have a male heir in order to help assure that the Tudor family would continue to control the throne and prevent any fighting over who would succeed him. Six wives later, he had one son, but he died at age 15. Having male heirs was something the Tudor family was not to good at. Henrys daughters, Mary and Elizabeth both died childless. Charles I took over the throne from his father, James I, and then had two sons of his own to continue the Stuart dynasty. The dynasties are similar in that both mostly ruled England. In addition to ruling England, James I ruled Scotland also. His heir to the throne, Charles I not only ruled England and Scotland, but also ruled Ireland. While the Tudor dynasty did not have many problems with parliament, the Stuart dynasty did not cooperate well with parliament at all. James I had many quarrel...

Thursday, February 20, 2020

THE SAINTE CHAPELLE Essay Example | Topics and Well Written Essays - 1250 words

THE SAINTE CHAPELLE - Essay Example Sainte Chapelle, built by Louis IX during the 13th century on the le de la Cit in the center of Paris was a famous example of late gothic architecture. Late Gothic in France, 1240-1550, called Rayonnant and Flamboyant. Rayonnant from rayonner, to radiate or shine, used to describe window traceries. The most visually attractive aspects of the chapel, and considered the finest of their type in the world, are its stained glass (were the Passion was clearly manifested). The stonework is a delicate framework, and rose windows added to the upper chapel in the 15th century. Durham Cathedral was generally considered one of the finest works of 'Norman' cathedral in Europe. Pointed arches, ribbed vaults, and flying buttresses (hidden above the aisle vaults) are visually evident in this cathedral. Notre Dame de Paris, built under High gothic period, a period wherein second-story gallery was omitted, but triforium or a three-story elevation was retained and reestablished. The catchiest feature of Notre Dame Cathedral was its Rose Window, built by Jean de Chelles, and was designed in the Rayonnant style. The Virgin and Child were depicted in the center circle, surrounded by figures of prophets. The second circle shows 32 Old Testament kings, and 32 high priests and patriarchs were depicted in the outer circle. Sainte Chapelle's structure was 36 m (118 ft) long, 17 m (56 ft) wide, and 42.5 m (139 ft) high. Fronted by a two-story porch, the Sainte-Chapelle had definite vertical proportions of Gothic architecture, which had been perfected during the 12th century. The architectural representation was that of a building with a single nave, culminated in a chevet with seven panels. Outside, the design was concentrated on the essentials - a sober base and heavy buttresses contrasting with the soaring lightness of the upper parts. The spire made of cedar, 33 meters (108 ft) high, a masterpiece of finesse, made in the 19th century, but an exact replica of the 15th century spire dominated the slate roof. The upper chapel was magnificent in its Gothic architecture - light, color, and space blend to inspire a sense of harmony between art and religious faith. Architects, sculptors and painters obviously took the greatest care with the interior of the upper chapel, as this was the part of the building reserved for the king, his close friends and family, as well as for displaying the religious relics. Supported by slender piers, the arched ceiling seemed to float above magnificent stained glass windows. Most significant of the sculpted decorations in the upper chapel were the statues of the twelve apostles, which lean on the columns marking the bays. With their flowing dress, finely featured faces and hair in flattened curls, they impart a sense of serenity in all who contemplate them. The lower chapel was dedicated to the Virgin Mary, whose statue stands freely next to the central pier of the portal. Low arched ceilings rest on fine columns with decorative carved leaf capitals, connected by anchor braces made of wood or stone. The walls were decorated with trefoiled arcades and twelve medallions representing the Apostles. DESIGN INTENTION The progressive enlargement of the windows was not intended to shed more light into the interiors, but rather to provide an